Tourmaline often occurs in boron-rich granites and its genesis is still in dispute either formed from residual boron-rich silicate melt or from magmatic hydrothermal fluids with or without external fluid involvement. Here, we present a systematic investigation of in-situ major, trace elemental and boron isotopic variations of tourmaline from the Sanfang granite in Guangxi Province of South China, which demonstrate both the magmatic and hydrothermal origin for the formation of the tourmalines. The tourmaline occurs mainly in quartz-tourmaline nodules and tourmaline pegmatitic segregations within the Sanfang granite. Four types of tourmaline are identified: (1) isolated and disseminated tourmaline (Tur-D type) distributed in granite; (2) euhedral and subhedral tourmaline in quartz-tourmaline nodules (Tur-N type); (3) the earlier stage tourmaline (Tur-PE type) in pegmatitic segregations and (4) the later stage tourmaline (Tur-PL type) which replaced the Tur-PE type tourmaline in pegmatitic segregations. All the tourmalines belong to the alkali group representing dravite-schorl solid solution series with the former three types being schorl and the Tur-PL type being dravite. Petrography, chemical discrimination diagrams and Al occupations in the Y-site suggest that the Tur-D, Tur-N and Tur-PE type tourmalines are of magmatic origin and the Tur-PL type tourmalines are of hydrothermal fluid origin. Elemental and boron isotopic composition variations of tourmalines reflect the compositional and environmental evolution from late boron-rich magma to exsolved hydrothermal fluids. Chemicalvariations from the Tur-D to the Tur-N tourmalines are controlled by magma differentiation. The increase of Mg/(Mg+Fe) and Ca/(Ca+Na) ratios from the Tur-N to the Tur-PE tourmalines suggests the contamination of surrounding strata (e.g. the Sibao Group). Hydrothermal tourmalines have higher Mg/(Mg+Fe) and lower Na/(Na+Ca) ratios than the magmatic tourmalines. There is clear correlation at least in some trace elements (e.g. Sr, Pb) with major elements for all tourmalines, indicating the potential crystal chemical effects on their incorporation. Other trace element incorporation in tourmaline is largely controlled by melt and fluid composition. Hydrothermal tourmalines have high and stable V, Co and Ni contents, indicating relatively constant partition coefficient between hydrothermal tourmalines and the fluid. Hydrothermal tourmalines exhibit lower total REE contents but more pronounced positive Eu anomalies than the magmatic tourmalines. The δ11B values of all tourmalines from the Sanfang granite vary from -14.4‰ to -9.3‰, which indicate the boron in the Sanfang granite was mainly derived from partial melting of the metasedimentary source rocks. Boron isotopic variations of tourmaline are controlled by fractionation between melt-fluid and Rayleigh fractionation.
Keywords: tourmaline; geochemistry; boron isotope; magmatic-hydrothermal evolution; South China